biome2_2.jpg tundra_location_map001.gif

Temperature: -60 degree F to barely 50 degrees F

Precipitation: 150 to 250 mm of rain per year



Tundra is a Russian word meaning "treeless land." It is the coldest biome on earth and has long, dark winters. In many areas of the tundra, the ground stays frozen for hundreds of feet below the surface. In some areas however, the ground will thaw in the summertime just enough to allow certain plants like mosses and lichens to grow.

lichen2.jpg tundra.colorado.rockies.jpg 346576-26116-38.jpg 50-25h2-Tundra.jpg

Despite the cold frigid temperatures in the tundra, it is still home to many animals. Polar bears, reindeer, arctic foxes, and caribou all live here. You will also find trout and cod in the arctic waters. Some birds such as ravens and falcons are also live in the tundra.


Human Activities:

You are not going to find a whole lot of people living in the tundra, so human population growth is not its biggest problem. There are however other big threats to the ecosystems that dwell in these parts of the world. The effects of global warming is major issue since it has drastically changed the climate in this biome. Increasing temperatures are tundra plants and shrubs grow more than they ever have. This can upset the natural processes that cycle water and energy. The extra plant life can also mean storing too much carbon, and therefore threaten the ecosystems that are found in the tundra.

Oil and gas development is the biggest threat to this environment. This area holds a good supply of oil, and despite the difficulty in extracting this oil, corporate interest and political support are anxious to start drilling in these parts of the world instead of promoting fuel conservation.


Davis, B. (2007). Biomes and Ecosystems. Pleasantville: Gareth Stevens

Donnelly, K (2003). Biomes of the Past and the Future. New York: Rosen